Ever since Pythagoras suggested more than 2,000 years ago that the earth was spherical rather than flat, and Aristotle provided the first known evidence for that, science has been continually expanding and advancing. In Pythagoras’s day, the majority of people … Continue reading →
Definition of ether
The rarefied element formerly believed to fill the upper regions of space
The upper regions of space: HEAVENS
or less commonly aether \ ˈē-thər \ : a medium that in the wave theory of light permeates all space and transmits transverse waves
If we can not see it, touch, smell it doesn’t exist!
We are just learning to see the energy and it looks like the synaptic pattern of our brain.
Is there a climate crisis? Is there a 97% ‘consensus’ on this? We look at the science and offer six points for your consideration and discussion: 1) Climate cycles between warm and cold
2) Warming benefits northern countries
3) CO2 enhances plant growth and crops
4) Sea levels change due to many factors
5) Warm climatic periods have more stable weather
6) Warming has economic benefits; “Climate Action” would cost more than doing nothing
IT STARTS FROM THE BEGINNING OF ELECTRICITY-
Early in the history or electricity, Thomas Edison’s General Electric
company was distributing DC electricity at 110 volts in the United States.
Then Nikola Tesla devised a system of three-phase AC electricity at 240 volts. Three-phase meant that three alternating currents slightly out of phase were combined in order to even out the great variations in voltage occurring in AC electricity. He had calculated that 60 cycles per second or 60Hz was the most effective frequency.
Tesla later compromised to reduce the voltage to 120 volts for safety reasons.
With the backing of the Westinghouse Company, Tesla’s AC system
became the standard in the United States.
Westinghouse chose 60 Hz because the arc light carbons(arc lamp) that were popular at that time worked better at 60 Hz than at 50 Hz.
Europe goes to 50Hz and 230V
230V is much more efficient to run lengths longer lengths.
Meanwhile, the German company AEG started generating electricity and became a virtual monopoly in Europe.
They decided to use 50Hz instead of 60Hz to better fit their metric standards, but they stayed with 120V.
Europe stayed at 120V AC until the 1950s, just after World War II.
They then switched over to 220V for better efficiency in
electrical transmission. Great Britain not only switched to 220V, but
they also changed from 60Hz to 50Hz to follow the European lead.
Since many people did not yet have electrical appliances in Europe after the
war, the change-over was not that expensive for them.
U.S. stays at 120V, 60Hz
The United States also considered converting to 220V for home use but felt it would be too costly, due to all the 120V electrical appliances people had.
A compromise was made in the U.S. in that240V would come into the house where it would be split to 120V to power most appliances.
Certain household appliances such as the electric stove and electric clothes dryer would be powered at 240V.
India got 50Hz, because it was colonized by England, which when they developed their electrical systems, choose 50 Hz.
From technical point of view operating 50 Hz versus 60 Hz would not make much difference but, to achieve it, either the prime movers – for example steam turbines, gas turbines and diesel engines would need to be able to tolerate a 20% increase in speed or the alternators they drive which produce the electricity would need to be completely rebuilt with extra poles and windings so that they could continue to run at the same rotational speed.
The costs of doing such re-engineering would be enormous and could not be justified as “economically worthwhile” from the point of view of actual necessity.
There is not any big scientific or electrical reason as to why in US and some other parts of the World use 60Hz and in India and certain other
parts of the World use 50 Hz.
It is just the way it has been started and it continues so.Changing this system would cost a lot.
Image courtesy: Graphs, Infographics
The tussle between Nikola Tesla and Thomas Edison is heard by most of us. It is believed that Edison’s early experiments with the Direct Current (DC) power somewhere in late 1800s showed first mainstream application for electricity, however it suffered from a tendency to lose voltage over long distances. On the other hand Nikola Tesla invented something called Alternating Current (AC) power which can be easily transmitted over long-distance, this was a direct competition to Edison’s Technology and it happened to be 110V. It is also believed that 110V is more economic and during the earlier times electricity was delivered to homes and businesses for the sole purpose of lighting. The other electrical equipment came much later. At that time effective form of a light bulb was a carbon filament bulb that operated best at 100-110V.
There was a lot of tussle between Edison and Tesla, words were exchanged, Elephants were electrocuted, and eventually it was settled that AC power was the only option. The first company to buy Tesla’s patents for power transmission, Westinghouse Electric (founded by George Westinghouse) settled on an easy standard: 60Hz – 110V.
Now the frequency of the AC supply depends upon the design and the rotatory speed of the generator. Generators operated by slow speed engines will produce lower frequencies, for a given number of poles, than those operated by for example a high speed steam turbine, these factors plays an important role to decide the operating frequency.
However in Europe, specifically in Germany, BEW exercised their monopoly to push things a little further and they arbitrarily set 50Hz as frequency and increased the voltage up to 240V to improve distribution efficiency. This slowly spread to entire Europe. This standard was adopted by India as well.
This however led to the world being divided into two frequency standard. Most 60Hz systems are nominally 120V and most 50Hz systems are nominally 230V.
Ask medieval historian Michael McCormick what year was the worst to be alive, and he’s got an answer: “536.” Not 1349, when the Black Death wiped out half of Europe. Not 1918, when the flu killed 50 million to 100 million people, mostly young adults. But 536. In Europe, “It was the beginning of one of the worst periods to be alive, if not the worst year,” says McCormick, a historian and archaeologist who chairs the Harvard University Initiative for the Science of the Human Past.
A mysterious fog plunged Europe, the Middle East, and parts of Asia into darkness, day and night—for 18 months. “For the sun gave forth its light without brightness, like the moon, during the whole year,” wrote Byzantine historian Procopius. Temperatures in the summer of 536 fell 1.5°C to 2.5°C, initiating the coldest decade in the past 2300 years. Snow fell that summer in China; crops failed; people starved. The Irish chronicles record “a failure of bread from the years 536–539.” Then, in 541, bubonic plague struck the Roman port of Pelusium, in Egypt. What came to be called the Plague of Justinian spread rapidly, wiping out one-third to one-half of the population of the eastern Roman Empire and hastening its collapse, McCormick says.
Historians have long known that the middle of the sixth century was a dark hour in what used to be called the Dark Ages, but the source of the mysterious clouds has long been a puzzle. Now, an ultraprecise analysis of ice from a Swiss glacier by a team led by McCormick and glaciologist Paul Mayewski at the Climate Change Institute of The University of Maine (UM) in Orono has fingered a culprit. At a workshop at Harvard this week, the team reported that a cataclysmic volcanic eruption in Iceland spewed ash across the Northern Hemisphere early in 536. Two other massive eruptions followed, in 540 and 547. The repeated blows, followed by plague, plunged Europe into economic stagnation that lasted until 640, when another signal in the ice—a spike in airborne lead—marks a resurgence of silver mining, as the team reports in Antiquity this week.
Ever since tree ring studies in the 1990s suggested the summers around the year 540 were unusually cold, researchers have hunted for the cause. Three years ago polar ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica yielded a clue. When a volcano erupts, it spews sulfur, bismuth, and other substances high into the atmosphere, where they form an aerosol veil that reflects the sun’s light back into space, cooling the planet. By matching the ice record of these chemical traces with tree ring records of climate, a team led by Michael Sigl, now of the University of Bern, found that nearly every unusually cold summer over the past 2500 years was preceded by a volcanic eruption. A massive eruption—perhaps in North America, the team suggested—stood out in late 535 or early 536; another followed in 540. Sigl’s team concluded that the double blow explained the prolonged dark and cold.
Mayewski and his interdisciplinary team decided to look for the same eruptions in an ice core drilled in 2013 in the Colle Gnifetti Glacier in the Swiss Alps. The 72-meter-long core entombs more than 2000 years of fallout from volcanoes, Saharan dust storms, and human activities smack in the center of Europe. The team deciphered this record using a new ultra–high-resolution method, in which a laser carves 120-micron slivers of ice, representing just a few days or weeks of snowfall, along the length of the core. Each of the samples—some 50,000 from each meter of the core—is analyzed for about a dozen elements. The approach enabled the team to pinpoint storms, volcanic eruptions, and lead pollution down to the month or even less, going back 2000 years, says UM volcanologist Andrei Kurbatov.
In ice from the spring of 536, UM graduate student Laura Hartman found two microscopic particles of volcanic glass. By bombarding the shards with x-rays to determine their chemical fingerprint, she and Kurbatov found that they closely matched glass particles found earlier in lakes and peat bogs in Europe and in a Greenland ice core. Those particles in turn resembled volcanic rocks from Iceland. The chemical similarities convince geoscientist David Lowe of The University of Waikato in Hamilton, New Zealand, who says the particles in the Swiss ice core likely came from the same Icelandic volcano. But Sigl says more evidence is needed to convince him that the eruption was in Iceland rather than North America.
Either way, the winds and weather systems in 536 must have been just right to guide the eruption plume southeast across Europe and, later, into Asia, casting a chilly pall as the volcanic fog “rolled through,” Kurbatov says. The next step is to try to find more particles from this volcano in lakes in Europe and Iceland, in order to confirm its location in Iceland and tease out why it was so devastating.
A century later, after several more eruptions, the ice record signals better news: the lead spike in 640. Silver was smelted from lead ore, so the lead is a sign that the precious metal was in demand in an economy rebounding from the blow a century before, says archaeologist Christopher Loveluck of the University of Nottingham in the United Kingdom. A second lead peak, in 660, marks a major infusion of silver into the emergent medieval economy. It suggests gold had become scarce as trade increased, forcing a shift to silver as the monetary standard, Loveluck and his colleagues write in Antiquity. “It shows the rise of the merchant class for the first time,” he says.
Still later, the ice is a window into another dark period. Lead vanished from the air during the Black Death from 1349 to 1353, revealing an economy that had again ground to a halt. “We’ve entered a new era with this ability to integrate ultra–high-resolution environmental records with similarly high resolution historical records,” Loveluck says. “It’s a real game changer.”
I burn wood and came up with an idea to burn hotter with less wood and hold the heat longer. I changed my firebrick to the heavier and used 2.25 inch brick. I added an extra brick to keep all the hot coals in the center of the fireplace. It holds the heat longer and burns wood completely, with little to no creosote. I cleaned my 20 foot chimney and this is all the creosote I got, about a shot glass worth.